The ongoing mystery around the tragic loss of flight MH370 dramatically illustrates how something completely unplanned and unanticipated can disrupt even the best laid plans, and place enormous challenges on organisations and their leaders.
Whilst crises differ in nature, duration and impact, all well run organisations need to ask themselves how well prepared they are for a crisis. How can they be sure that their leaders – who may never have faced a real crisis – will be up to the job when the time comes?
One aspect that makes handling crises difficult is that human nature means that the first instinct of people faced with unexpected danger, risk and/or uncertainty tends to be emotional rather than rational.
Psychologists describe a number of typical dysfunctional response patterns: ‘Unconflicted adherence’ – often described as ignorance is bliss; ‘Defensive avoidance’ – sometimes called wishful thinking; ‘Unconflicted change’ – a refusal to consider a fallback position; or ‘Hyper vigilance’ – more commonly described as panic.
Leadership in a crisis involves rising
above these emotions and keeping a cool head. First, making sense of the situation, taking into account the facts and the data. Secondly, finding ways of communicating this effectively and bringing stakeholders on board who may themselves be distraught, in denial or afraid. And, thirdly, ensuring that accountabilities for action and decision-making are clear and accepted when multiple players become involved and traditional lines of authority don’t work well.
The best crisis leaders have the intellectual capacity to understand complexity, integrate rapidly multiple sources of information – and still remain open minded and flexible as the situation evolves.
They need to have the emotional intelligence and interpersonal skills to lead others and gain respect – collaborate, communicate clearly, delegate and trust. And, they need to have personal qualities of mental toughness, emotional self control and self confidence, as well as a commitment to a successful outcome, not their personal glorification.
The best organisations spend time preparing and practising for crises before they happen:
They think through as many different scenarios as they can, so people have the capacity and ‘bandwidth’ to think rationally and not emotionally when crisis hits.
They define their core crisis leadership team in advance, selecting the right people and skills for the team. They clarify roles and skills, especially those dealing with external interfaces. They then expand the team as necessary in a real situation.
Crucially, they make the time to rehearse and practice, and make this as realistic as possible. They learn from what happens, and are prepared to adapt roles and personnel accordingly.
In crisis situations, it is impossible to get everything right. Indeed, in the case of MH370, the lack of certainty and information on what happened, the protracted nature of the crisis and the many countries, agencies and cultures involved, make the leadership task extremely difficult.
Sometimes there are no easy answers, only more questions.
Incheon International Airport Corporation has appointed Choi Hong-Yeol as its acting president and CEO following the departure of Dr Jung Chang-Soo who resigned for “political reasons”. Choi has more than 30 years experience in the aviation industry and previously served as executive vice-president of IIAC’s administration division. It is understood that Dr Jung intends to run for governor of Gangwon province.
Joyce Carter has been named as the new president and CEO of Halifax International Airport Authority (HIAA). “Since joining HIAA in 1999, Joyce has been an integral part of our airport community and HIAA’s growth and development,” says chairman of the board, Peter McDonough.
Aéroports de Paris (ADP) subsidiary, Aéroports de Paris Management (ADPM) has appointed Frédéric Dupeyron as its new CEO. In 2008, Dupeyron negotiated the industrial alliance between ADP and the Schiphol Group and in 2013 he joined the Prime Minister’s office to run the Programme des Investissements d’Avenir (Investing in the Future Programme), which promotes the digital economy.
Heathrow’s chief executive officer, Colin Matthews, has announced that he will leave the role later this year, claiming that after six years at the helm, it was time to “pass on the baton”.
He is expected to go shortly after the summer opening of Terminal 2: The Queen’s Terminal.
“The terminal’s opening is a further important step in the transformation of Heathrow, where the long-term prospects are bright following the decision of the Airports Commission to shortlist our proposal for a new runway,” says Matthews.