Aviation Media Logo

SAFETY & SECURITY Last modified on November 21, 2013

First line of defence

John Romanowich discusses best practices for airport perimeter security.

Recent high-profile intrusions at airports around the world highlight the critical need for accurate, dependable security systems to protect aviation assets.

As a result, there is a growing trend of paying more attention to perimeter security now that most issues around security checkpoints and screening passengers in terminals have been resolved.

Most security professionals, of course, know that perimeter security systems are the first line of defence for airports, so the increased attention on the perimeter is a welcome trend.

Achieving security awareness for airport perimeters comes down to timely, credible alerts with detail to respond.

Knowing the nature and location of an intrusion is the key to mounting an effective response. A number of automated detection technologies including coax and fibre fence sensors, microwave, seismic sensors and radar can provide some level of perimeter detection.

However, thermal cameras with video analytics provide substantial advantages over these alternatives, increasing the probability of intruder detection while greatly reducing the nuisance alarms that have plagued automated perimeter systems in the past.

One advantage is speed, which is paramount when thwarting an intruder. Only such ‘smart’ thermal cameras with video analytics combine accurate detection with visual detail to determine the ‘what and where’ of an alert without additional verification systems.

Knowing the size, location and nature of an event as it unfolds is the key to mobilising an effective response.

With the innovation of smart thermal cameras with substantially more onboard image processing, thermal systems are now available to accurately detect the presence of unauthorised persons over site perimeters and outdoor areas, regardless of difficult conditions common to an airport.

Smart thermal cameras are designed to filter the effects of environmental elements and provide detection over large areas, regardless of wind, weather or the movement of small objects.

When security operations receive accurate information they can mount an appropriate response to the nature of the alert. Such a system yields the necessary ‘security awareness’ around the perimeter to meet airport security objectives.

When selecting a perimeter solution to protect airports, consider these best practices:

Choose thermal cameras for outdoor perimeters
Lighting is often poor or unavailable along extensive airport perimeters. Thermal cameras will ignore stray headlights and reflected light, while operating in total darkness and bright sun. They also eliminate the expense, power and difficulty of lighting large airport perimeters.

Developments in image processing related to thermal imaging boost the applicability of these systems from their traditional role as ‘night vision’ cameras.

Additional image processing works with thermal image sensors to adapt to dynamic outdoor conditions, such as those of airport perimeters, and provide good clear images that are closer in quality to black-and-white photographs.

Image processing intelligently exaggerates small differences in temperatures detected by thermal sensors to make important scene details visible to the human eye.

The availability of better thermal images can eliminate the need for visible cameras during daylight and provide clearer images regardless of conditions 24 hours a day, and the prices have come down significantly making them affordable for mainstream use.

Use GPS analytics to increase detection accuracy
Perimeter systems must ignore stray movement caused by foliage, blowing debris or small animals while still detecting human and vehicle intrusions at all times.

Cameras with GPS-based analytics know the location and actual size of all objects in the field of view. This is the basis for size filters that accurately detect what’s relevant and ignore objects that don’t meet size criteria, greatly reducing nuisance alerts that can plague other solutions.

Electronic stabilisation reduces nuisance alarms
Smart cameras operate by sensing movement, but outdoors, everything moves. Cameras mounted on a pole will sway from wind, vibrations, aircraft taking off or other factors.

In all cases, choose cameras with built-in electronic stabilisation to maintain a high probability of detection without nuisance alerts from these vibrations.


Choose a camera built to withstand the elements
To ensure dependability and continuous coverage, outdoor cameras need to be protected from humidity, sand and extreme temperatures. Otherwise, normal expansion and contraction due to thermal changes throughout the day could allow grit, dust or humidity to enter a camera’s housing, impacting the electronics and clouding the camera lens.

Sealed, nitrogen-purged cameras tested to meet NEMA 4X standards will withstand the outdoor environment best, even in harsh environments.

Determine an analytics camera’s detection range when choosing camera placement
When designing a perimeter security system, it’s important to know the system’s reliable coverage area. The best measure is the distance at which a camera can detect an intruder walking ‘inbound’ or directly toward the camera, and not the less accurate ‘crossfield’ distance.

In fact, crossfield detection is often twice the distance of inbound detection ranges. Sometimes vendors only publish crossfield detection resulting in designs that leave large security gaps.

Ask your manufacturer to demonstrate their inbound detection range to avoid gaps.

Use overlapping camera views to avoid blind spots
All cameras have a blind spot under the pole. This area must be viewed by an adjacent camera to ensure no gaps in security.

Choose a validated, proven solution
A recent United States Transportation Security Administration (TSA) test at Buffalo Airport in the USA confirmed the detection accuracy of a thermal system in the challenging environment typical of many airports.

According to the TSA’s final report, the “evaluation team performed over 900 scenarios in which every alarm instance was accurately reported.”

The test showed that it is possible to ensure accuracy, even in an uncontrolled environment with constant changes in lighting, wind, clouds and other variables, and to provide effective outdoor security that isn’t plagued by nuisance alarms and false alarms.

Longer-range cameras reduce costs
Airport perimeters often comprise large areas that can stretch several miles. A majority of a perimeter security solution’s costs relate to supporting infrastructure: poles, cabling, connectivity and power.

Longer-range cameras cover more area with fewer devices, up to twice the detection distance and four times the detection area than previous solutions. Longer ranges reduce the number of poles, trenching and communications needed for an airport’s deployment, lowering costs.

In fact, thermal cameras with video analytics are now much more cost-competitive with other technologies, meeting and even beating traditional solutions for securing perimeters.

Successful security for airports comes down to detection accuracy and economics. New smart thermal camera systems deliver on both, even in the uncontrolled environment of airport perimeters, becoming the new standard for securing aviation assets.


Analyse that
The truth today is that, despite a massive amount of CCTV footage being recorded, the vast majority of it is never watched or reviewed due to lack of time. This means that events and activities are missed, and suspicious behaviour is not noticed in time to prevent incidents, writes David Thomasson.

The situation has led to the development of video analytics or intelligent video, where the surveillance system automatically performs an analysis of the captured video images. This is adding real value to surveillance installations.

Network video (IP) cameras now include a range of analytics, such as motion detection, cross-line detection, people counting and anti-tampering detection, together with two-way audio capability.

By processing the video in the network cameras themselves – ‘at the edge’ – the load on the network is significantly reduced as only relevant video is streamed from the cameras.

Intelligent video applications, therefore, help build video surveillance systems that are more cost-effective.

David Thomasson is Axis Communication’s Northern Europe transportation business development manager. 


About the Author
John Romanowich is president and CEO of SightLogix. He is also chairman of the Security Industry Association’s Perimeter Security Standards Subcommittee and a member of the RTCA Airport Perimeter Intrusion Detection Standards Group.


Share on social media

Article Options

Related items

Get the Airport World Newsletter!

Follow us on Twitter

8750 peoples are following airportworldmag