The total is, however, a quarter of a percent down on the 104.1 million passengers to pass through the gateway in 2016.
International passenger numbers were up 4.8% to 12 million.
ATL also tops the world in aircraft movements, with 879,560 operations in 2017, although this was once again down on the previous year, this time by 2%.
Cargo volumes, however, soared by an impressive 5.6% to 685,338 tonnes.
Last year's passenger throughput means that ATL remains the only airport on the planet to handle over 100 million passengers per annum, a goal it has surpassed for the third consecutive year.
“Hartsfield-Jackson successfully combines efficiency and passenger volume in a way that ensures ATL retains its position as the aviation industry’s leader,” said Atlanta Mayor, Keisha Lance Bottoms.
“That worldwide leadership role enables the airport to maintain its status as the economic engine of the Southeast.”
The airport's general manager, Roosevelt Council, noted: “We set out last year to increase our international passenger numbers and overall cargo totals and are thrilled to see the results of our hard work.”